How to store data in MySQL using Cygnus

Context information stored by the Fiware Context Broker only includes the latest value of entity attributes. Cygnus is one option to be able to store the historical data produced via the Context Broker. Cygnus itself needs to be connected to a store. In this example MySQL is used.

Therefore, the three main components used are:

In the figure below we can see that the user can issue REST HTTP requests. All operations are sent to the Orion Context Broker to be processed. Cygnus subscribes to Orion Context Broker, so that Cygnus is notified of any change made to entities stored by Orion.


In a typical configuration, the Orion Context Broker will be running on port 1026. Cygnus exposes two ports, 5081 for management purposes and 5050 for receiving notifications from Orion. For more info you can check the Cygnus Management Interface documentation

Configure Cygnus

The settings for each sink can be configured within the relevant *.conf file, or alternatively via Docker ENV variables and secrets. Some typical values for MySQL can be seen below:

# ============================================
# NGSIMySQLSink configuration
# ============================================ = mysql-channel
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.type =

# Connection to the MySQL Server
# the FQDN/IP address where the MySQL server runs
# the port where the MySQL server listens for incomming connections
# the username and password (can also be set as Docker secrets)
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.mysql_host = mysql
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.mysql_port = 3306
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.mysql_username = root
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.mysql_password = xxxxxxxxxxxx

# Other options available for MySQL
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.enable_encoding = false
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.enable_name_mappings = false
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.enable_grouping = false
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.enable_lowercase = false
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.attr_persistence = row
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.data_model = dm-by-entity
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.batch_size = 100
cygnus-ngsi.sinks.mysql-sink.batch_timeout = 30

Subscribe Cygnus to Orion

Context Consumers can subscribe to receive context information that satisfy certain conditions using the subscribe operation. Such subscriptions may have an expiration time. In return, the Context Broker notifies updates on context information to subscribed Context Consumers by invoking the notify operation they export as an HTTP endpoint capable of processing POST requests.

The entities and notifications subfields define the contents of the notification messages.

  • The fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers are used to filter the subscription to only listen to measurements from the attached IoT Sensors, since they had been provisioned using these settings
  • The idPattern in the request body ensures that Cygnus will be informed of all context data changes.
  • The notification url must match the configured CYGNUS_API_PORT
  • The attrsFormat=legacy is required since Cygnus currently only accepts notifications in the older NGSI v1 format.
  • The throttling value defines the rate that changes are sampled.

Subscriptions may have an expiration date expires field, specified using the ISO 8601 standard format. Once subscription overpass that date, the subscription is simply ignored.

Once a dynamic context system is up and running, we need to inform Cygnus of changes in context.

This is done by making a POST request to the /v2/subscription endpoint of the Orion Context Broker.

curl -iX POST \
  'http://localhost:1026/v2/subscriptions' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'fiware-service: cygnusexample' \
  -H 'fiware-servicepath: /some/service-path' \
  -d '{
  "description": "Notify Cygnus of all context changes",
  "subject": {
    "entities": [
        "idPattern": ".*"
  "notification": {
    "http": {
      "url": "http://cygnus:5050/notify"
    "attrsFormat": "legacy"
  "throttling": 5

After creating a subscription Cygnus need to update the attribute values the some context data to store data persistently in the DB. In the figure above we can see that notifications will be sent to http://cygnus:5050/notify

This request updates the value of an existing sensor

curl -iX PATCH \
  --url 'http://orion:1026/v2/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Sensor:001/attrs' \
  --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  --header 'Fiware-Service':      'cygnusexample' \
  --header 'Fiware-ServicePath':  '/some/service-path' \
  --data ' {
      "temperature":{"type":"Integer", "value": 89}

Check DB via command prompt

After connecting to the MySQL server, a new cygnusexample database has been created which holds the changing values of the subscribed context entities:


| Database           |
| information_schema |
| cygnusexample      |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)